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A Charismatic Looks at the Birth of Pentecostalism

[11] Cited in Goff, Fields White, 113, from Parham’s account two decades later, and probably embellished to accent the role of the students in “discovering” the importance of tongues.

[12] On Parham’s activities and influence in Zion City see: Edith Blumhofer’s, “The Christian Catholic Apostolic Church and the Apostolic Faith: A study in the 1906 Pentecostal Revival,” 126-146. In: Cecil M. Roebeck, Jr., Charismatic Experiences in History (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1985).

[13] See on this, Goff, Fields, 132.

[14]Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Movement in the United States (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1971), 111.

[15] Grant Wacker, Heaven Below: Early Pentecostals and American Culture (London: Harvard University Press, 2001), 44-51.

[16]On the early dissent to tongues as the necessary evidence for the Baptism of the Spirit see: Paul Chappell, “Tongues as the Initial Evidence of the Baptism of the Holy Spirit – A Pentecostal Perspective, Criswell Theological Review, 4 #1 (Fall 2006) 49-50.

[17]Karl R. Popper, Conjectures and Refutations: The growth of scientific knowledge (London: Routledge & r. Paul, 1963).

[18] This is explained with academic jargon in: Shane Clifton, “The Spirit and Doctrinal Developments: A Functional Analysis of the Traditional Pentecostal Doctrine of the Baptism of the Holy Spirit,” Pneuma 29, #1, 5-23.

[19] On Seymour see: Larry Martin, The Life and Ministry of William J. Seymour (Joplin: Christian Life Books, 1999) [Editor’s note: read the review by Paul L. King], and the detailed article on Seymour by Vinson Synan in: Stanley M. Burgess, and Gary B. McGee, (eds.), Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1988). Available on the web is Synan’s article for Christian History, issue 65, “Pentecostalism: William Seymour.”

[20] On the extent that the revival in Wales stirred expectancy in Los Angeles during 1905 and 1906 see: Frank Bartleman, Another Wave of Revival (Springdale: Whitaker house, 1982), 24.

[21] Cited from an excellent web site on the Azusa St Revival:

[22] Frank Bartleman, Azusa Street, (Plainfield: Logos International, 1980), 58-60. Reprint of the 1925 ed. published under title: How Pentecost came to Los Angeles.

[23] Bartleman Azusa St. 133

[24] Estrelda Alexander, The Women of Azusa Street (Cleveland: The Pilgrim Press, 2005), see especially chapter four and five.

[25] On the different theories as to why the women left with the mailing list see: Larry Martin, The Life and Ministry of William J. Seymour, (Joplin: Christian Life Books, 1999), 278, note 43.

[26] For a glimpse of this small and morally rigorists denomination see the article in Time magazine, “Camp Meeting: Apostolic Faith” (April 19, 1935) 34-35.

[27]On the African American contribution to Pentecostalism and the tragic re-segregation of Pentecostal churches see: Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Movement in the United States (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1971) chapter 8 “The Negro Pentecostals.” Also, a brief and wonderful article by Louis F. Morgan “The Flame Still Burns.” Charisma (Nov, 2007) 42-58. This is a beautifully illustrated article and unusually detailed for a popular magazine.

[28] Carrie Judd Montogmery’s influence and leadership from Faith-Cure to Pentecostalism was stressed in the scholarly article by Daniel E. Albrecht, “Carrie Judd Montgomery: Pioneering Contributor to Three Religious Movements,” PNEUMA 8 (fall 1986)101-119

[29] Bartleman, Azuza St., 81.

[30] Alma White, Demons and Tongues (Bound Book, NJ: The Pentecostal Union, 1910). This citation may be confusing, “Bound Book” is the place name, and “Pentecostal Union” the publishing institution. Many Holiness groups used the term Pentecostal without our modern association of tongues.

[31] Vinson Synan, In the Latter Days: The outpouring of the Holy Spirit in the Twentieth Century (Ann Arbor: Servant Books, 1984) 75

[32]The reader has guessed by now that I dislike to call unusual Christian groups “heretics.” But here I am tempted.

[33]Edmund Schlink, The Doctrine of Baptism (Concordia Publishing House, St. Louis/London, 1972), 27-28.

[34]The reader may have seen the excellent movie “The Apostle” starring Robert Duval as a Pentecostal preacher. He baptized his converts “Onto the name of Jesus. In the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit” thereby hedging his bets on this issue.

[35]On this point see: Gerald R. McDermott, “The Great Divider: Jonathan Edwards and American Culture,” Books and Culture (Jan./Feb. 2010).

[36] George Barton Cutten, Speaking With Tongues, Historically and Psychologically Considered (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1927).

[37] In fact one survey showed that persons who spoke in tongue were more likely to be well adjusted and healthy psychologically, see: William Wood, Culture and Personality Aspects of the Pentecostal Holiness Religion (The Hague: Mouton Co., 1965).

[38] For a wonderful biography of this not so saintly saint, see: Edith L. Blumhofer’s Aimee Semple McPherson: Everybody’s Sister ( Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1993).

[39] Like tongues before 1900, this may be a spiritual phenomenon of the Kingdom that gets vastly under reported simply because it is not “named’ or publicized. See: Richard M. Riss, “Singing in the Spirit in the Holiness, Pentecostal, Latter Rain and Charismatic Movements,” paper delivered in “Orlando “95” conference July 28, 1995. Available at:

[40] Richard M. Riss, A Survey of 20th Century Revival Movements in North America (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1988), 116

[41] Riss, Survey, 119-120.

[42] D. William Faupel, “Glossolia as Foreign Language; Investigations of the early Twentieth-Century Pentecostal claims,” Wesleyan Theological Journal, 31 (Fall 1996), 99.

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Category: Church History, Fall 2014

About the Author: William L. De Arteaga, Ph.D., is known internationally as a Christian historian and expert on revivals and the rebirth and renewal of the Christian healing movement. His major works include Quenching the Spirit: Discover the Real Spirit Behind the Charismatic Controversy (Creation House, 1992, 1996), Forgotten Power: The Significance of the Lord’s Supper in Revival (Zondervan, 2002), Agnes Sanford and Her Companions: The Assault on Cessationism and the Coming of the Charismatic Renewal (Wipf & Stock, 2015), and The Public Prayer Station: Taking Healing Prayer to the Streets and Evangelizing the Nones (Emeth Press, 2018). Bill pastored two Hispanic Anglican congregations in the Marietta, Georgia area, and is semi-retired. He continues in his healing, teaching and writing ministry and is the state chaplain of the Order of St. Luke, encouraging the ministry of healing in all Christian denominations. Facebook

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