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Peter Althouse: Wesleyan and Reformed Impulses in the Keswick and Pentecostal Movements

41Melvin Easterday Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century (Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1980), p. 23.

42Smith, p. 104.

43Smith, p. 111.

44Dayton, p. 96. Mahan, Finney and other Oberlin theologians increasing saw the baptism of the Holy Spirit as an enduement of power for the purpose of Christian service.

45Dayton, p. 89.

46Smith, pp. 106-7.

47Dieter, pp. 56-7.

48Generally speaking, Keswick leaders would refer to Oxford and Brighton, as well as the Broadlands meetings hosted by W. Cowpter-Temple, as part of Keswick spirituality, and indeed many of the leaders attended both Keswick and the Oxford/Brighton conferences. See Charles F. Harford (ed.), The Keswick Convention: Its Message, Its Method and Its Men (London: Marshall Brothers Keswick House, 1907). Similarly, scholars such as Bebbington (p. 151) and Ian Randall treated the Oxford and Brighton conferences as part of the Keswick conferences. See Ian M. Randall, “Spiritual Renewal and Social Reform: Attempts to Develop Social Awareness in the Early Keswick Movement Vox Evangelica 23 (1993): pp. 67-86. For the sake of brevity, the Brighton and Oxford Conferences will be taken as part of the same religious movement as Keswick, in this paper, and thus the will all be considered a part of Keswick.

49J.C. Pollock, The Keswick Story: The Authorized History of the Keswick Convention (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1964), pp. 25-6.

50David Bundy, Bibliographic Overview, pp. 16-7.

51C. G. Moore, “Some of the Results,” The Keswick Convention, p. 112.

52Bundy, “Keswick and the Experience of Evangelical Piety,” in Modern Christian Revivals, p. 118.

53Pollock, The Keswick Story, p. 55.

54R.P. Smith, in W.J. Smith, Record of the Convention for the Promotion of Scriptural Holiness held at Brighton, May 29th to June 7th, 1875 (London: S.W. Partridge and Co., c1896), reprinted by Donald W. Dayton, ed. “The Higher Christian Life”: Sources for the Study of the Holiness, Pentecostal, and Keswick Movements, vol. 39 (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1985), p. 36.

55Robinson, in Convention for the Promotion of Scriptural Holiness at Brighton, p. 444.

56Robinson, in Convention for the Promotion of Scriptural Holiness at Brighton, p. 445.

57Bebbington, p. 168. Bebbington’s point was well taken, but Keswick leaders were careful to point out that the possibility of holiness was not the result of personal action. Harford-Battersby, for example, commented that overcoming sin was not the result of human endeavour. See Pollock, p. 26. Another Keswick writer stated that the message of Keswick searched heart and conscious “not by turning attention inward to questions of subjective experience, but upward to the glory of Christ’s Person,” (Pollock, pp. 50-1) yet Pollock concluded that one of the obstacles to the spread of Keswick holiness was its dependence on emotional, spiritual experiences. Pollock, p. 153. It could be argued that the effort Keswick leaders took to disclaim “excessive” spiritual experience was precisely because they were concerned that the conventions could be too experiential at the expense of Scriptural teaching.

58Douglas Frank, Less Than Conquerors: How Evangelicals Entered the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1986), pp. 141-2.

59The emphasis in Wesleyan holiness was, for the most part, upon the moral action of the Christian. With the emphasis upon attitude in Keswick holiness, there seemed to be a greater degree upon human subjectivity. At the Brighton Conference, Pasteur Theodore Monod preached that our “purpose at this meeting [was], first of all, to know ourselves.” (p. 66). Self-understanding was a key to a holy life.

60R.W. Dale, in Convention for the Promotion of Scriptural Holiness at Brighton, p. 451.

61Albert Head, “The Watchword of the Convention,” The Keswick Convention, p. 114-5.

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Category: Church History

About the Author: Peter F. Althouse, PhD (University of Toronto), is Assistant Professor of Religion at Southeastern University. He is the author of Spirit of the Last Days: Pentecostal Eschatology in Conversation with Jürgen Moltmann (T & T Clark, 2003), and has written many articles on eschatology, pneumatology and Pentecostal studies. Faculty page. Facebook.

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