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Supernatural Physical Manifestations in the Evangelical and Holiness Revival Movements, by Paul King

[41] See Cartwright, 45-47, 66-67; Maria Woodworth-Etter, Marvels and Miracles (Indianapolis, IN: M.B.W. Etter, 1922), 503, 505-508. For instance, Maria Woodworth‑Etter wrote:

A woman came to me and said, “I am afraid this spirit on me is not of God; I was baptised [sic] in the Holy Ghost; I went into a mission where they did everything by tongues and they got me so mixed up I did not know where I was; then this spirit got hold of me; it shakes my head and makes my head ache.” That is spiritualism. Some people, when they pray for anyone and lay on hands, throw their slime off. That is spiritualism. . . . Be careful who lays hands on you, for the devil is counterfeiting God’s work. Woodworth‑Etter, 508.

[42] Taves, 132-135, 152-165, 206, 226-234, 241-247..
[43] Carre, 22.
[44] Torrey, 48.
[45] “The Jerry McAuley Mission,” Christian and Missionary Alliance Weekly, Jan. 28, 1911, 275.
[46] Stewart, 31‑33, 36, 43, 46, 51, 61, 76.
[47] Elizabeth Elliot, A Chance to Die: The Life and Legacy of Amy Carmichael (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell, 1987), 89-90, 99, 168, 181, 193, 210, 221, 222, 235, 253, 276, 292-293.
[48] Lewis Drummond, Spurgeon: Prince of Preachers (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1992), 81, 167, 173, 181, 184, 221, 235-236, 271, 281, 285.
[49] F.B. Meyer, Five Musts of the Christian Life (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1927), 122.
[50] A. W. Tozer, Wingspread (Harrisburg: Christian Publications, 1943), 62.
[51] Pardington, 216.
[52] Louise Green, “Robert Jaffray: Man of Spirit, Man of Power,” His Dominion, 16:1, 10, 11.
[53] For example, C. H. Gootee recounts a healing service led by A. B. Simpson and Henry Wilson in which he received a miraculous healing. When Wilson anointed him with oil, he saw a vision of the blood of Jesus sprinkled on his breast and body. C.H. Gootee, “The Miracle of My Healing,” Triumphs of Faith (March 1926), 62.
[54] For instance, Maria Woodworth‑Etter, who circulated both in holiness and early Pentecostal circles, advised, “Don’t take up with every vision that comes along.” She gave an example of one such spurious revelation: “In the midst of a vision she heard a voice say to her, ‘You are going to die.’ But it was the devil.” Woodworth‑Etter, 503, 506.
[55] Martin Wells Knapp, Impressions (Cincinnati: Revivalist Publishing House, 1892), 15.
[56] Thomas Upham, The Life of Faith (New York: Garland Publishing, 1984 reprint Boston: Waite, Pierce, 1845), 85.
[57] Knapp, 34.
[58] Cartwright, 76-77.
[59] B. J. Oropeza, A Time to Laugh: The Holy Laughter Phenomenon(Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1995), 158.
[60] Jessie Penn‑Lewis with Evan Roberts, War on the Saints: Unabridged Edition (New York: Thomas E. Lowe, Ltd., n.d.), 320, 324.
[61] Adolf Rodewyk, Possessed By Satan, trans. Martin Ebon (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1975), 152.
[62] Cartwright, 45-47.
[63] Penn‑Lewis and Roberts, 131.
[64] Ibid., 297‑298.
[65] Penn‑Lewis and Roberts, 285.
[66] Stewart, 29.
[67] Carrie Judd Montgomery, “Witchcraft and Kindred Spirits,” The Alliance Weekly, Oct. 15, 1938, 660-661, Oct. 22, 1938, 676-677, see also Taves, 231.
[68] Oesterreich, in his monumental work Possession, writes of many examples of possession by animal spirits, such as cats, badgers, tiger, ox, dogs, monkeys, snakes, lions, and foxes. T.K. Oesterreich, Possession: Demonical and Other (New Hyde Park, NY: University Books, 1966), 144‑145. A person with a fox spirit, for instance, “adopts the habits of foxes” (224). A person with a tiger spirit would get on his hands and knees and growl (274‑275). Another woman would glide like a snake and speak in tongues (144). He also records that a demon roared (184). In another instance, St. Francis cast out roaring demons (182). Jerome reports in his biography of St. Paula that possessed persons in Samaria “howled like wolves, barked like dogs, roared like lions, hissed like serpents, bellowed like bulls” (162). In Algiers dancers are possessed and imitate voices of lions and camels (263). In another instance, a monkey spirit caused a child to swing to and for and to climb supernaturally (276). John Wesley also spoke of roaring taking place in demonized people. Frederck S. Leahy, Satan Cast Out (Edinburgh: The Banner of Truth Trust, 1975), 121. Nineteenth century Presbyterian missionary John Nevius writes of demons with a voice like a bird and twisting of body. John L. Nevius, Demon Possession and Allied Themes (Chicago: Fleming H. Revell, n.d.), 46, 53. Johann Christoph Blumhardt describes a demons roaring or howling during deliverance. McCandlish Phillips, The Bible, the Supernatural, and the Jews (Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1970), 199; Friedrich Zuendel, The Awakening (Farmington, PA: Plough Publishing House, 1999), 58.
[69] A. B. Simpson, Christian and Missionary Alliance Weekly, Feb. 2, 1907.
[70] Paul Rader, “At Thy Word—A Farewell Message,” The Alliance Weekly, Nov. 20, 1920, 532.
[71] Charles Parham, The Everlasting Gospel (Baxter Springs, KS: n.p., 1911), 71, 72.
[72] Woodworth‑Etter, 507‑508.
[73] Cartwright, 102.
[74] A missionary friend in South Africa reported that on two separate occasions he observed two different pastors apparently roaring. Believing the phenomena to be demonic, he attempted to cast out demons without any response. When questioned about it, in both instances each pastor responded that he was crying out in words for the nations to repent, but the listeners only heard roaring. This could be a similar phenomenon to the incident when God the Father spoke to Jesus and some thought it thundered (John 12:28‑29), or when Paul heard Jesus speak but others only heard a sound (Acts 22:9).
[75] Wesley, 71, 76, 81, 99, 207, 213, 215, 222, 234, 239, 293, 331-333, 378, 389.
[76] See Paul L. King, Accepting the Supernatural with “Candor and Caution”: An Annotated Chronological Catalog of Charismatic History of the Christian and Missionary Alliance (Tulsa, OK: Paul L. King, 2002).
[77] Hank Hanegraaff, Counterfeit Revival (Dallas: Word Publishers, 1997).
[78] Wesley, 239.
[79] McCrossan, Speaking in Other Tongues, 42.
[80] Edwards, 91.
[81] D. Martyn Lloyd‑Jones, Revival (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1987), 146‑147.

This paper was presented at the 32nd Society of Pentecostal Studies/Wesleyan Theological Society Joint Conference, March 21, 2003. It is used here by permission of the author.

About the Author
Paul KingPaul L. King holds a D.Min from Oral Roberts University and a D.Th. from the University of South Africa. He served for 16 years on the faculty of Oral Roberts University as Coordinator of Bible Institute programs and Adjunct Professor in the College of Theology and Ministry. Author of 10 books and more than 50 articles, he was ORU 2006 Scholar of the Year and also served as Scholar-at-Large for the D.Min. program at Alliance Theological Seminary. He is currently Doctor of Ministry Mentor for the Randy Clark Scholars program at United Theological Seminary, Leadership and Church Ministry Consultant and Trainer, an ordained pastor with the Christian and Missionary Alliance, and Interim Consulting Pastor for the Plano (Texas) Chinese Alliance Church. www.higherlifeministries.com

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About the Author: Paul L. King holds a D.Min from Oral Roberts University and a D.Th. from the University of South Africa. He served for 16 years on the faculty of Oral Roberts University as Coordinator of Bible Institute programs and Adjunct Professor in the College of Theology and Ministry. Author of 10 books and more than 50 articles, he was ORU 2006 Scholar of the Year and also served as Scholar-at-Large for the D.Min. program at Alliance Theological Seminary. He is currently Doctor of Ministry Mentor for the Randy Clark Scholars program at United Theological Seminary, Leadership and Church Ministry Consultant and Trainer, an ordained pastor with the Christian and Missionary Alliance, and Interim Consulting Pastor for the Plano (Texas) Chinese Alliance Church. Twitter: @PaulLKing. www.higherlifeministries.com

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