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The Globalization of Pentecostalism: A Review Article, by Paul Elbert

[9] For example, “Word and Spirit, Church and World: The Final Report of the International Dialogue between Representatives of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches and Some Classical Pentecostal Churches and Leaders, 1996-2000,” Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies 4/1 (2001), pp. 41-72.[10] Ed., Karla Poewe (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1994).

[11] These expected qualities of narrative composition displayed by Luke are highly touted, for example, by Theon of Alexandria (c. 50CE), cf. Michael Patillon (ed.), Aelius Théon Progymnasmata, Texte établi et traduit (Collection des Universités de France; Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1997).  Patillon’s edition includes the five chapters (Giancarlo Bolognesi, ed.) of Theon’s treatise in an Armenian edition not included in the edition by James R. Butts, “Progymnasmata of Theon: A New Text with Translation and Commentary (Ph.D. Diss., Claremont Graduate School, 1987).  As to the use of examples and precedents in narrative persuasion, their employment in the oratorical side of the rhetorical tradition is well studied, with a distinguished record of scholarly exploration, beginning in this century, for example, with Karl Alewell, Über das Paradeigma: Theorie, Beispielsammlungen, Verwendung in der römischen Literatur der Kaiserzeit (Leipzig: A. Hoffman, 1913).

[12] Cf. Jon Ruthven, On the Cessation of the Charismata: The Protestant Polemic on Postbiblical Miracles (JPTSup 3; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993); “Charismatic Theology and Biblical Emphases,” Evangelical Quarterly 69 (1997), pp. 217-36; Gary S. Shogren, “Christian Prophecy and Canon in the Second Century: A Response to B. B. Warfield,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 40 (1997), pp. 609-26; Roger Stronstad, The Prophethood of All Believers: A Study in Luke’s Charismatic Theology (JPTSup 16;Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999), pp. 13-34; and William W. Menzies and Robert P. Menzies, A Call to Evangelical Dialogue: Spirit and Power, Foundations of Pentecostal Experience (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2000), a work which explores methods of interpretation.

[13] D. J. Hesselgrave, “Third Millenium Missiology and the Use of Egyptian Gold,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42 (1999) 577-89 (589).

[14] Matthew S. Clark, “Pentecostal Hermeneutics: The Challenge of Relating to [Post]-Modern Literary Theory,” The Spirit & Church 2 (2000), pp. 67-93.

[15] There is certainly a need for a formal Evangelical-Pentecostal Dialogue where differences of perspective can irenically emerge and be discussed forthrightly.  It could be hosted by various seminaries in different countries of the two traditions in alternate years.  Perhaps the agenda, mutually devised, could be modeled after other fruitful efforts, cf. Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen, Ad ultimun terrae: Evangelization, Proselytism and Common Witness in the Roman Catholic-Pentecostal Dialogue, 1990-1997 (Studien zur Interkulturellen Geschichte des Christentums 117; Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1999).  Cecil M. Robeck, Jr., “Pentecostals and Ecumenism in a Pluralistic World,” in Dempster, Klaus and Petersen (eds)., Globalization, pp. 338-62 (354), is probably right when he argues that since, “Within the next fifteen years, Pentecostals will begin to emerge as major political and social players in many Latin American countries… the time for talking is now, not then.”

[16] Frank D. Macchia, “The Struggle for Global Witness: Shifting Paradigms in Pentecostal Theology,” Dempster, Klaus, and Peterson (eds.), Globalization, pp. 8-29 (18).  Further amplification of this view of glossolalia appears in Macchia’s, “Justification Through New Creation: The Holy Spirit and the Doctrine by Which the Church Stands or Falls,” Theology Today 58 (2001), pp. 202-17 (214, 217), “The Spirit’s involvement as advocate and intercessor for creation is implied in the Spirit’s groaning in and through the suffering creation (Rom 8:26)… Our witness is exclusively to God’s redemptive justice or saving righteousness in Christ through the Spirit… The ‘full gospel’ must certainly point us away from ourselves to the saving activity of Christ in the world through the life-transforming power of the Holy Spirit.”

[17] Re Seymour’s pivotal role in the revival/renewal of this century, cf. Douglas J. Nelson, “The Black Face of Church Renewal: The Meaning of a Charismatic Explosion,” in Paul Elbert (ed.), Faces of Renewal: Studies in honor of Stanley M. Horton (Peabody, MA; Hendrickson, 1988), pp. 172-91; David Daniels III, “African-American Pentecostalism in the 20th Century,” in Synan (ed.), Century, pp. 265-91 (273-76).

[18] The Apostolic Faith was a monthly newspaper published by the Apostolic Faith Mission on Azusa Street under Seymour’s leadership, cf. Daniels, “African-American,” in Synan (ed.), Century, p. 274.

[19] Stanley M. Burgess, “Pentecostalism in India: An Overview,” Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies 4/1 (2000), pp. 85-98.

[20] Vinson Synan, “Streams of Renewal at the End of the Century,” in Synan (ed.), Century, pp. 349-80 (380).

[21] Examples from tradition were never elevated above responsible exegesis of Scripture or set in contradistinction to Scripture.  Charismatic tradition remains a serious interest in Pentecostal scholarship, given the awareness of ongoing participation and continuity with this inspiring tradition, a tradition with roots in the teaching on prayer by the earthly Jesus Himself and in the examples and precedents recorded in the narrative theology by an anonymous writer of a two-volume work in the Graeco-Roman narrative-rhetorical tradition.  A few historical investigations may illustrate this, e.g., Stanley M. Burgess, The Spirit and the Church: Antiquity  (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1984); Cecil M. Robeck, Jr., “Irenaeus and ‘Prophetic Gifts,’” in Paul Elbert (ed.), Essays on Apostolic Themes: Studies in Honor of Howard M. Ervin (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1985), pp. 104-14; Stanley M. Burgess, The Holy Spirit: Eastern Tradition (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1989); The Holy Spirit: Medieval Roman Catholic and Reformed Tradition (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1997); Sang-Whan Lee, “The Relevance of St. Basil’s Pneumatology to Modern Pentecostalism,” The Spirit & Church 1/1 (1999), pp. 49-76; Gary S. Shogren, “How Did They Suppose ‘The Perfect’ Would Come? 1 Corinthians 13.8-12 in Patristic Exegesis,” Journal of Pentecostal Theology 15 (1999), pp. 99-121; Raniero Cantalamessa, The Mystery of Pentecost (Glen S. Davis, tr.; Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2001).

[22] Steven J. Land, Pentecostal Spirituality: A Passion for the Kingdom (JPTSup 1; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993), pp. 220-23; Paul W. Lewis, “Towards a Pentecostal Epistemology: The Role of Experience in Pentecostal Hermeneutics,” The Spirit & Church 2 (2000), pp. 95-125.  Regarding the work of Arrington, Ervin, McKay, R. Menzies, W. Menzies, and Stronstad, for example, with respect to the role of the Holy Spirit in interpretation and experiential understanding, cf. the useful summary by Kenneth J. Archer, “Pentecostal Hermeneutics: Retrospect and Prospect,” Journal of Pentecostal Theology 8 (1996), pp. 63-81.

[23] Regarding the experience of reading texts, the experience of thinking and reflection, while valuable in itself, remains different from more concrete interactivity with God in the realms of perception and sensation.

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About the Author: Paul Elbert, physicist-theologian and New Testament scholar, teaches theology and science at the Pentecostal Theological Seminary. He is co-chair of the Formation of Luke-Acts section in the Society of Biblical Literature and is a research advisor to the Dominican Biblical Institute, Limerick, Ireland. His writings have appeared, for example, in Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft and in Catholic Biblical Quarterly. He served as editor of two anniversary volumes for Old Testament scholars, Essays on Apostolic Themes (1985) and Faces of Renewal (1988).

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